Part 5 of Abating Hazardous Air Pollutants: Ammonia
What is Ammonia?
Ammonia is a compound of nitrogen and hydrogen. A colorless gas with the formula NH3, ammonia has a pungent smell. Ammonia boils at 33.34 degrees and must be stored under pressure or at a low temperature. Industrial ammonia is sold as either an ammonia liquor or as a pressurized and/or refrigerated anhydrous liquid ammonia transported in tanks cars or cylinders. In 2014 the global production of ammonia was 176 million tonnes. China is the top worldwide producer with nearly one-third of total production, followed by India, Russia and the United States.
Ammonia molecules have a trigonal pyramidal shape. The molecules shape allows for a dipole moment and makes it polar. This polarity allows the ability to form hydrogen bonds and makes ammonia highly miscible with water. The central nitrogen atom has five outer electrons with additional electron from each hydrogen atom. This makes a total of eight electrons or four electron pairs that are arranged tetrahedrally. Of these electron pairs three of them are used as bonded pairs leaving one sole pair of electrons. This long pair repels more strongly than bond pairs. [Read more…]