Gulf Coast Environmental Systems designs, engineers, manufactures, and offers service to a wide range of pollution control solutions, treating countless different Hazardous Air Pollutants and Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs). We have put together a collection of detailed articles that explain the most common VOCs and HAPs we face in our industry, and outline some of the ways we abate them. GCES is constantly adding to this list, so be sure to check back, often.
Industry: Electrical Equipment
Sub-Industry: Commercial & Residential Building Equipment & Systems
Project Type: Equipment Proposal
A fortune 500 lighting company that manufactures LEDs and lighting products. This Company provides solutions for automotive lighting, computer displays, LCD televisions, and other applications.
To determine the feasibility and estimates to convert the existing wet scrubber units to chemical injection for creation of a sellable byproduct of ammonia sulfate.
Gulf Coast Environmental Systems was asked to perform a feasibility project by a lighting company that manufactures light-emitting diode (LED) components. With a large amount of ammonia and hydrogen being released from the reactors during the process performed at their facility, they would need specialized equipment. The hydrogen is treated in an Incineration system (NOx created) with the remaining ammonia being removed using water only in the packed tower scrubbers. The blowdown (Ammonium Hydroxide) from the scrubbers is treated in an Acid Neutralization Systems (ANS) (converts to Ammonium Sulfate) before being discharged into the wastewater system. Waste surcharges apply based on the ammonium (NH4+) content in the wastewater.
The goal of this feasibility study was to determine the required steps and costs involved in using Sulfuric Acid in the scrubbers to get a controlled blowdown liquor that could create a viable revenue stream from an existing liability waste procedure. In addition, the need for the ANS system is hopefully eliminated along with the additional costs of discharging the uncontrolled wastewater. [Read more…]
What gases are released by landfills?
Landfills consist of a complex mix of gases and VOCs, and are a source of major pollution, and potential revenue… which we will address later in this article. Dangerous gases like methane (CH4), carbon dioxide(CO2), sulfides (SOx), and ammonia, are created by the decomposition and evaporation of organic compounds, as well as chemical reactions between waste components. Methane and carbon dioxide are the most prevalent, making up between 90 and 98% of all gases and VOCs released.
Why are these chemicals a concern?
These gases and VOCs are considered greenhouse gases, and play a huge role in global warming. According to the EPA, in the United States, landfills are the third most prevalent source of methane, and other greenhouse gases. Another risk when dealing with methane is the flammability of the gas, which is incredibly high. When condensed into a small space, methane is considered an explosive, and should be handled with extreme caution. Landfill gas explosions are not uncommon.
In addition to pollution and the risk of exploding, these VOCs pose a serious risk to human health. They have been linked to eye, throat and lung irritation, nausea, headache, nasal blockage, sleeping difficulties, weight loss, chest pain, and even asthma. Some recent studies indicate a connection between air pollution, and Alzheimer’s, diabetes, and slow fetal development. [Read more…]
Part 5 of Abating Hazardous Air Pollutants: Ammonia
What is Ammonia?
Ammonia is a compound of nitrogen and hydrogen. A colorless gas with the formula NH3, ammonia has a pungent smell. Ammonia boils at 33.34 degrees and must be stored under pressure or at a low temperature. Industrial ammonia is sold as either an ammonia liquor or as a pressurized and/or refrigerated anhydrous liquid ammonia transported in tanks cars or cylinders. In 2014 the global production of ammonia was 176 million tonnes. China is the top worldwide producer with nearly one-third of total production, followed by India, Russia and the United States.
Ammonia molecules have a trigonal pyramidal shape. The molecules shape allows for a dipole moment and makes it polar. This polarity allows the ability to form hydrogen bonds and makes ammonia highly miscible with water. The central nitrogen atom has five outer electrons with additional electron from each hydrogen atom. This makes a total of eight electrons or four electron pairs that are arranged tetrahedrally. Of these electron pairs three of them are used as bonded pairs leaving one sole pair of electrons. This long pair repels more strongly than bond pairs. [Read more…]